Welcome to Shelston IP’s wrap-up of the most notable patent law decisions in Australia and New Zealand delivered during 2020 – a remarkable year indeed. The High Court delivered its first decision in a patent case since 2015, and there was an interesting spread of Full Federal Court, Federal Court, Australian Patent Office and Intellectual Property Office of New Zealand decisions relating to issues of patent validity, infringement and amendment as well as procedural issues.
- The High Court of Australia has endorsed the doctrine of exhaustion in favour of the longstanding doctrine of implied licence with respect to patented products in Australia, but made clear the critical question remains whether the modifications made to a product in each case are properly characterised as permissible repair or impermissible re-making (Calidad v Seiko Epson).
- An enlarged Full Federal Court has confirmed that a protocol for a clinical trial that is publicly available can be novelty-defeating, provided the information disclosed is sufficiently specific and complete to disclose the invention that is later claimed. The Full Court has also provided important guidance on the nature and scope of Swiss-style claims, and the circumstances under which such claims may be infringed (Mylan v Sun).
- The Full Court of the Federal Court has found that a computer-implemented method that linked website users to online advertising was not a manner of manufacture and therefore not patentable subject matter (Commissioner of Patents v Rokt). In separate decisions, a computer-implemented method relating to “sandboxing” (Facebook) and an invention relating to the hardware and software components of an electronic gaming machine (Aristocrat v Commissioner of Patents) were held to be patent-eligible subject matter, while a modified roulette table was found not to be patent-eligible (Crown).
- The Full Court of the Federal Court has confirmed that section 105(1A) of the Patents Act 1990 (Cth), introduced by the Raising the Bar reforms, confers on the Federal Court the power to direct amendments to patent applications during the course of an appeal hearing (Meat and Livestock Australia v Branhaven).
- In the long-running patent dispute relating to Lundbeck’s antidepressant, Lexapro (escitalopram), the Full Court of the Federal Court overturned a decision that had found Sandoz liable for patent infringement during the extended term of a patent after it was restored, and awarded damages. Lundbeck has recently been granted special leave to appeal to the High Court of Australia, which for the third time will hear an appeal regarding an aspect of this long-running litigation (Sandoz v Lundbeck).
- The Federal Court provided its first detailed analysis of the Raising the Bar reforms to Australian patent law concerning sufficiency and support. A subsequent judgment on final relief, delivered in November 2020, highlights the challenges facing a defendant who seeks to resist final injunctive relief on public interest grounds (Merck Sharp & Dohme v Wyeth). Those sufficiency and support requirements, as well as best method, were also considered in detail by the Australian Patent Office (University of British Columbia, Gliknik v CSL).
- In an unprecedented decision, the Federal Court of Australia has considered and dismissed a claim by the Commonwealth Government for compensation from sponsors of innovator pharmaceutical products, pursuant to undertakings as to damages given in exchange for an interlocutory (preliminary) injunction restraining the launch of the first generic product (Commonwealth v Sanofi).
- A party which gave undertakings not to launch an allegedly infringing biosimilar without first giving notice successfully resisted an application for preliminary discovery (Pfizer v Sandoz). Conversely preliminary discovery was granted against a former employee, but limited in scope due to the prevailing financial circumstances (Sovereign v Steynberg).
- Extension of term applications were refused for pharmaceutical patents (Pharma Mar, Ono).
- An opposition to an Australian patent application based solely on a challenge to entitlement was successful (Liquid Time v Smartpak).
- The Federal Court considered the applicability of the Crown use defence to infringement, and the effect of prior disclosures by the Crown on validity (Axent v Compusign).
- The nature and detail of disclosures in prior art and the common general knowledge proved determinative of the validity in decisions concerning a combination pharmaceutical product (Boehringer v Intervet) and a parking management system (Vehicle Monitoring Systems v SARB).
- The construction of claims in the context of the entire specification proved determinative of issues of infringement and validity in several decisions (Caffitaly v One Collective, Nufarm v Dow, CQMS v ESCO).
- The Intellectual Property Office of New Zealand has delivered decisions demonstrating the difficulty of opposing an application under the “old” 1953 Act (Lonza v Koppers), the high burden for computer-implemented methods (Thomson Reuters) and the more onerous support requirements under the “new” 2013 Act (Taiho Pharmaceutical).
As we continue into 2021 (and away from 2020), we hope this review provides a practical and comprehensive resource. Please do not hesitate to take the opportunity to contact our authors, all subject-matter experts in their respective fields, for advice on the issues raised by these important decisions.
Authored by Duncan Longstaff