3 min read

I’m exploring statuses, patent expiries and kind codes in a three part series of articles.  The first article on statuses can be found here.

This second instalment looks at patent expiries around the world.

Looping back to the article on statuses for a minute, patent term expiry dates are both theoretical and precise.  Precise in that a definitive end date for the maximum patent term can be calculated, but theoretical in that other events occur to prevent the patent reaching that date.  These events include non-payment of renewal fees (Ceased, Ended), and revocation of the grant of the patent (Revoked).

Patent Expiries

Let’s get United States patent expiries out of the way.  There are a couple of rules to follow, and I have covered those in an earlier article

There’s a transition date of 8 June 1995 where rules moved from the latter of 20 years from filing/17 years from issue to just 20 years from filing.  That date is over 25 years ago now, and almost all of those filed before it have now expired.  I say almost all because I can find a small number with an earliest effective filing date before June 1995 and an issue date after 2004 (because that’s 17 years ago), not to mention any submarine patents we will never know about until they are granted. 

These days most United States patents will expire 20 years after the earliest effective filing date, which is in line with the rest of the world.  That’s not taking into account any patent term adjustments which add days to the expiry date as a result of patent office delay, or any terminal disclaimer that limits the term of a patent to that of another patent.  The number of days of adjustment, and details of terminal disclaimers can be found in PAIR.

Article 33 of the WTO’s TRIPs Agreement states

“The term of protection available [for patents] shall not end before the expiration of a period of twenty years counted from the filing date.”

As such, patents around the world, including the United States, have 20 year patent terms, calculated from the filing date for convention applications, and the international filing date for PCT applications.

The calculation is easy.  A patent filed on 10 April 2017 expires on 10 April 2037.

There are a few exceptions.  Every rule has at least one.

Divisional applications or continuation applications, although physically filed on a later date, take the filing date of the original, or parent application.  Shown below is an example from Australia, for the application 2019210667.  It’s just one in a chain of divisionals stemming from the original application filed in 2007.  Although this application was filed in August 2019, the effective filing date is in September 2007, making the expiry date of this application 7 September 2027 and not 2 August 2039.

The other exception to patent expiries being less than 20 years is through applications such as Australia’s innovation patents or Chinese utility patents, where the application is subject to less scrutiny in exchange for a shorter patent term.  For innovation patents this is eight years, and for utility patents it is ten years.  WIPO helpfully provide a list of countries that have this model of patent filing, and more detail can be found here.

Those two examples cover shorter patent terms but what about patent terms that are longer than 20 years?

Some biologically active ingredients, such as for use in human and veterinary medicines, can take a long time to obtain regulatory approval and get to market, so it is possible to obtain an extension of the patent term for up to five years as compensation for the time lost.  These are generally known as supplementary protection certificates (SPCs) or patent term extensions (PTEs).  Not all countries allow for such extensions of the patent term, but those who do include countries through Europe, North America and Asia, as well as Australia.

So, in summary, patent expiries can easily be calculated, especially for anything filed so far this century, but take care with older United States patents, and check whether an patent is a utility model filing or is subject to a patent term extension, in order to determine the expiry date, and don’t forget to use this in combination with status information to determine if a patent is dead or alive.

In part 3 I’ll look at how to read and understand kind codes.

Authored by Frazer McLennan and Paul Harrison

4 min read

You’ve found a patent of interest but how do you know if it’s dead or alive, and if alive, when it expires, and what exactly do those kind codes indicate?

I’ll explore all these in a three part series of articles, starting with where to find status information and what it means.


Some patent offices explicitly report the status of an application, while others make you dig a little deeper, and some make you work hard for that information.  Before we get to who’s who and what’s what, let’s look at what the language around statuses is.

At the most basic level a patent is dead or alive, but within those labels there are a number of ways to describe where in the patent lifecycle they are.  Statuses in both categories are split into pre-grant and post-grant.  Every patent office has its own language around statuses.  Here’s a selection.

Under examination
Under opposition
No opposition filed

Although data aggregators such as commercial patent databases often have status data, the recognised place to go for accurate status information is the national register for the patent of interest.  In Australia that’s AusPat, and in New Zealand it’s IPONZ.  Other sources include PAIR (United States), the European Patent Register, KIPRIS (South Korea), J-Plat-Pat (Japan), and thanks to Brexit, Ipsum (United Kingdom) now has more relevance than it used to.  Of course the list of national registers is far too long to mention every one here, but you can find a list at the WIPO Patent Register Portal.

In some national registers all you need to do is search for a patent number (or any search) and the status will be provided as part of the search results or record view, such as AusPat below.

Others in this group include IPONZ, KIPRIS and Ipsum.

National registers in the next group don’t explicitly state the status of a patent, and usually require a single click, or maybe two, from the search results page through to the record view.  For example the search results page for J-Plat-Pat is shown below, and a click on ‘Details’ will take you to the information required.

Others in this group include In-PASS (India), PRV (Sweden) and the Canadian Patents Database.

The last group of national registers make you work harder to find the status of a patent.  I’m looking at the European Patent Register, and giving death stares to the United States’ PAIR in particular, and for different reasons.

First to the European Patent Register.  The initial view is straightforward as shown here.

The status ‘No opposition filed within time limit’ refers to the period after acceptance where an application can be opposed before grant, and in this case that time has expired and the patent has been granted.  Simple isn’t it?  Not quite.  Europe is a group of countries, and a number of these get designated so that the EP patent is applicable in each of them, so your country of interest has to be on that list, as shown below.  To find this list just scroll down the register page for this application.

Are we there yet?  Sorry, no.  We still need to scroll down the page a little further.  The list of designated countries is essentially an ambit claim, hedging that the patent is going to make it big.  They usually don’t so many of the designated states find themselves on the ‘lapsed’ list, shown here in part.

Now you need to conduct a reverse search to see if the country of interest is on the list or not, made all the harder by having the list in date order, not alphabetical order.  If the country of interest is here, the patent is dead, if not, possibly still alive.  At first glance I can see Germany, France, Great Britain and Ireland are still potentially alive.  A trip to their respective registers (Depatis, INPI, Ipsum and IPOI) is necessary to confirm that.

Now to PAIR.  Many national registers will change the status of a patent when a significant event such as ceasing through non-payment of renewal fees, or expiry after the full term of the patent, but the USPTO do not. Take the example shown below where the initial view in PAIR indicates it is a ‘Patented Case’.

The image doesn’t show the application filing date or the earliest effective filing date but it is 3 May 1999 for both.  If you’ve read my previous article on calculating United States patent expiries you’ll know the expiry date is 3 May 2019.  That’s a date in the past so this patent has expired, but PAIR does not say so.  You have to do all the work here.

There’s always the possibility of a patent term adjustment of more than two years, but with an issue date just over three years after filing, that’s unlikely, so you can assume it is well and truly dead.

This example is for a patent around the end of its expected life, but for others, in addition to calculating the expected expiry date, you may need to check the patent maintenance fees to see if they are up to date.  You can access that information through PAIR.

That’s a brief rundown on statuses, where to go to find them, and what language is used to describe them.  I touched briefly on patent expiry dates for the United States.  In Part 2 I’ll look at patent expiries in other parts of the world.

Authored by Frazer McLennan and Gareth Dixon

4 min read

Patent classification titles are usually pretty boring, but occasionally one will jump out at you and fire up your imagination.  A62B33 is one of those.  Its full title is Devices for allowing seemingly-dead persons to escape or draw attention; Breathing apparatus for accidentally buried person.

See what I mean?  Right now your mind is conjuring up images such as:

This one isn’t even that old.  It dates back to 2013, and it’s not even the most recent disclosure of this type.

Generally though, devices such as these have a very long history with the first recorded back in the late 18th century.  The earliest patent I can find dates to about one hundred years later, in 1892, but it’s just one of a flurry of patents in this area over the next decade or so.

It’s a simple mechanism comprising a bush of feathers in a tube, protruding above the ground, and triggered essentially by the seemingly dead person attempting to sit up, and as such bumping their head, releasing the bush of feathers out of the tube to be noticed by eagle-eyed cemetery goers.  It’s not all bad though as the point at which one bumps their head has been thoughtfully padded.  An egg on your head is probably the least of your worries in that situation.

If we switch for a moment to filings in the class over time, you can see three distinct periods: from the late 1800s to the mid 1960s, from there to the mid 1990s, and from there to today.  The number of families filed within these periods steps up four-fold each time, so is this by necessity or technological advance?

If I was to generalise regarding the subject matter within these three distinct periods, I would have to say that the first period corresponds with what are known as safety coffins.  These are coffins with mechanical mechanisms that allow someone to signal that they are indeed alive, and breathe while waiting for that signal to be seen.  Here are a few more examples: US500072, GB191006409 and FR1065868.

The second period would appear to coincide with the rise of electronics and personal devices.  There is also a move away from safety coffins, and towards buried persons of other types such as avalanche or landslide victims or lost scuba divers.  Advancements in the field of electronics mean beacons carried by skiers or mountaineers allow a person to be located by rescuers easily when there is no visible sign of their presence, but other personal devices still rely upon a mechanical device in the same way a safety coffin would have.  Gas canisters with balloons on long ropes can be activated in the event of an avalanche to expand the balloon to provide a visible signal to rescuers.  The balloons also serve as possible buoyancy aids while you’re sliding down the mountain, leaving you close to the surface, or as possible snow free refuge and air providers if they end up close to the person and can be deflated.  Examples in this group include CH450499, US3786406, US3911913 and US5490501.

The third period still appears to electronics driven, although now the devices are getting smaller, more sophisticated, and reliant upon communication networks, even those being filed in the safety coffin space.  There is also a focus on wearables such as jackets and helmets, with more features such as air bags, an air supply or illumination, providing more time before rescue.  Here are some examples from this period:  DE19957408, US2003208890, US2009121930, and US2018326233.

I’ve drawn the line for the most recent period as flat, but really filings are trending positively.  Much more than the previous two periods did.  One of the first things to do is see where these patent families are originating from.  As Chinese originating applications are surging in general, I looked to see if that is the case here, and it’s not.  No one country appears to stand out.  Some of the higher filing jurisdictions are the European Patent Office, the United States, Germany and China. 

The highest of those is the European Patent Office, and the majority subject matter is wearable airbag systems, so perhaps that’s where the trend has been in recent years.

Lastly, the award for the ultimate in ‘on trend’, or serendipity or opportunism, has to go to the applicant for DE102018005497

As you can see it’s a rescue system for people trapped in caves enclosed by water.  Sound familiar?  It was filed just one day after the Tham Luang cave rescue in Thailand.

This patent class, A62B33, sounds funny, and early examples do look ridiculous these days, but today the subject matter is quite serious and along very different lines, which shows just how much a broadly titled, long forgotten class can change over time.

Authored by Frazer McLennan and Charles Tansey